Town of Micanopy, Alachua County, Florida.

  • Slide-0
  • Slide-1
  • Slide-2
  • Slide-3
  • Slide-4
  • Slide-5
  • Slide-6
  • Slide-7
  • Slide-8
  • Slide-9
  • Slide-10
  • Slide-11
  • Slide-12
  • Slide-13
Slide-0 Slide-1 Slide-2 Slide-3 Slide-4 Slide-5 Slide-6 Slide-7 Slide-8 Slide-9 Slide-10 Slide-11 Slide-12 Slide-13

The Town of Micanopy encompasses 1.03 square miles near the Alachua-Marion County line in rural north-central Florida between Gainesville (home of the University of Florida) and Ocala (the horse capital of the world). Micanopy’s 669 residents occupy 300 residences. The beautiful southern community was named for Seminole Chief Micanopy (ca.1780-1849).

The ancient oaks clothed in Spanish moss enfold Micanopy’s narrow streets and dirt lanes and provide shade and Southern ambiance for visitors and families that have lived here for generations. Micanopy’s appeal is based on its rich, sometimes savage history. Florida’s aboriginal records show that Hernando De Soto encountered an early Timucua Indian Village here in 1539 and later, Pennsylvania botanist William Bartram visited a Cuscowilla village on this site in 1774.  Micanopy is the oldest inland town in Florida, having been included in a land grant made by the King of Spain in 1817 to Don Fernando de la Maza Arrendondo of Havana and St. Augustine. Founded after Spain relinquished Florida to the United States in 1821, Micanopy became the first distinct American town in the new territory. Originally an Indian trading post, Micanopy was built under the auspices of the Florida Association of New York. A leading member of this company, Moses E. Levy, along with Edward Wanton, a former Anglo-Spanish Indian trader, played important roles here. In 1822, a select group of settlers and skilled craftsmen departed New York harbor and set sail for Florida. After disembarking on the banks of the St. Johns River (at the site of present day Palatka), and with the added labor of 15 slaves, these men forged a 45 mile road with eight bridges to Micanopy—a vital new pathway into the interior. These first settlers arrived on February 12, 1823, and were in close contact with both Seminole and Miccosukee Indians, as well as the black descendants of runaway slaves who resided among them. This initial period was one of relative peace. Micanopy means “head chief,” a title awarded to the leader of the Alachua Seminoles. For a time, this frontier hamlet was also known informally as “Wantons.”

The onset of the Second Seminole War in December 1835 caused great devastation. Nearby sugar plantations and homesteads were burned and entire families sought the safety of Micanopy, which had been barricaded with log pickets and renamed Fort Defiance by the military. During the summer of 1836, the Battle of Micanopy and the Battle of Welika Pond took place here. On August 24, with most soldiers sick or wounded, the US Army evacuated the fort and town and all buildings were intentionally burned. Afterward, Fort Micanopy was erected in 1837. The town was rebuilt after the Seminole War, with few of the original inhabitants returning. Cotton replaced sugar as a staple crop and cattle production assumed new importance. Following the Civil War and with the advent of the railroad, the Micanopy area became known as the “leading orange and vegetable growing section of Florida.” After a freeze in 1894-95, orange cultivation was curtailed, but farmers continued to flourish by growing winter vegetables for northern markets. By the 1920’s, truck farming was largely displaced by the lumber and turpentine industries. Many of the town’s larger surviving homes reflect the previous era of agricultural prosperity.

Today, excavations and preservation initiatives pay tribute to the Town’s historic past with the search for artifacts in residents’ yards. A local park, the Micanopy Native American Heritage Preserve, protects an Indian mound.

Dedicated on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, Cholokka Boulevard, once an Indian trading route, is Micanopy’s main street, and the Town’s primary tourist destination known for its antique shops. Micanopy’s eclectic mix of authentic rustic storefronts lure casual shoppers, collectors, seasonal scouts from all over the country, and Hollywood film makers (1991 Doc Hollywood,  1983 Cross Creek, and most recently, The History Channel’s 2014 Top Gear). The nationally lauded Greek revival mansion, the Herlong Mansion Bed & Breakfast (1915), is known for providing Southern hospitality. A two-story brick schoolhouse (1895) houses Micanopy Town Hall, the Town Commission Chambers, and the Micanopy branch of the Alachua County Library District. Across the street, the wood-planked Thrasher Warehouse (1896) boasts the Micanopy Historical Society Museum and the Micanopy Archives showcasing the relevance of earlier times for historians, genealogists, and students. Numerous historic homes and old cracker houses add to the picturesque warmth of “the town that time forgot.”   

Under Florida law, email addresses are public records. If you do not want your email address released in response to a public records request, do not send electronic mail to this entity. Instead, contact this office by phone, in person or in writing.